27
2017
04

非洲的动物有哪些? What are the animals in Africa?

品种及数量繁多而闻名,大型有蹄类哺乳动物(约90多种)和淡水鱼(2,000种)比其他各洲都多。

哺乳动物 主要的草食性动物群是非洲羚,属于牛科(Bovidae)下的4种亚科。

第一种亚科是似牛的Bovinae(牛),此亚科再分为非洲水牛和弯角羚,包括大角斑羚(所有羚中最大者)、捻角羚、白斑羚和南非羚羊。

第二种亚科是小羚羊,一种住在灌木丛、矮树丛和森林中的原始的小牛科动物。

第三种亚科叫「马羚」,进一步分类为马剑角紫貂羚、马羚和大羚羊;「鹿羚」、东非狷羚、麋羚、转角牛羚、角马和南非白面大羚羊,都是居住在广阔平原为主的动物,以及「沼泽羚」、非洲水羚、短鼻水羚、水羚、 弯齿水羚和小苇羚。第四种亚科是正统羚羊,又分为两个宗族,

    第一宗族包括侏儒岛羚、犬羚、岩羚、侏羚、小岩羚和黑耳石羚;

    第二宗族有羚羊、黑斑羚、跳羚和长颈羚、其他众所周知的非洲大草食动物有斑马、长颈鹿、河马、犀和非洲象。


可能没有其他动物群能比得上食肉动物目更能与非洲认同了,它们约有60馀种。除了著名的大猫(吼猫)类诸如狮、豹、猎豹外,还有野狗、鬣狗、薮猫(一种长腿猫)、野猫、胡狼、狐、鼬、灵猫类和獴。这些食肉动物和食腐动物对维持它们所居住地区的生态平衡是至关重要的。


   灵长类动物约包括45种旧大陆猴和两种世界大类人猿∶黑猩猩和世界最大的类人猿大猩猩。前类人猿的灵长类动物诸如树熊猴(非洲狐猴)和婴猴(灌木丛的幼畜或栖树小狐猴)以及懒猴(懒猴科〔Lorisidae〕,在树上慢慢地、柔和地爬行)体型大都是较小且夜间出没的,但是在马达加斯加没有真正的猴,却集中有世界上最为多样的或大或小,或昼行或夜行的前类人猿狐猴。 海生哺乳动物有一种地中海海豹和一种南非海豹(开普海狗)和两种海牛目哺乳动物(水生草食性动物目)——儒艮和海牛。

     此外,鲸、鼠海豚和海豚常光临非洲海滨水域中。 非洲当地特有的大量哺乳动物种类仅次于南美。这些哺乳动物有长颈鹿和河马。灵猫的小亲戚有和鬣狗,主要都是非洲种。跳跃野兔的啮齿科动物是当地特有的,夜间活动的穴居大土豚(管齿目〔Tubulidentata〕)有一个品种是非洲独有的。马达加斯加还有一个异常的食虫科叫马岛猬(具有长尖嘴的动物,有些是有刺和无尾的)。 鸟类 撒哈拉南部的鸟类有近1,500种留鸟,另有275种或为西北非的留鸟或为古北区(Palaearctic)冬季候鸟;候鸟曾达20亿之数,但是由于严重的乾旱和人类使用土地以及捕食行为使其数量锐减。鸟类主要属旧大陆科,但是属于那些地方性的种类,最有价值者可算鸵鸟、鲸头鹳、锤头鹳(一种棕色似鹭的鸟)、鹭鹰(一种大的长腿肉食性鸟)以及蕉鹃(羽色体丽,有些有如盔般的肉冠)。其他科诸如鸨、沙鸡、向蜜鴷和百灵在非洲甚为普遍。有许多捕食陆地哺乳动物的鸟类,包括雕、鹰和鴞;有食鱼类的如鹳、涉水禽和少数几种翠鸟;还有更多食虫者,这一类通常对人类很有益处。食腐动物有秃鹫和大秃鹳。 爬虫类和两生动物 爬虫类几乎没有当地特有的品种,主要的品种都和旧大陆有关。最常见的有飞蜥科的蜥蜴、石龙子(其特点是重叠的鳞片)、鳄和陆龟。当地爬虫类有绕尾绳甲片蜥蜴。在非洲范围之内只有马达加斯加才有飞蜥科的蜥蜴和绞死猎物的蟒蛇。有各种各类的蝰蛇并且为数甚多∶某些种类有极毒的毒液,但是很少见。众多的游蛇科的蛇(上腭后部末端有尖牙)和眼镜蛇(上腭前面有固定的毒牙)还包括高度分泌毒液的眼镜蛇品种如曼巴。

     两生动物也主要属于旧大陆类。蝾螈类和雨蛙科(Hylidae, 即树蟾科;上腭有牙)局限在古北区的西北部。大量的较普通的青蛙和蟾蜍包括古怪的喀麦隆毛蛙,其毛是辅助呼吸器官。青蛙亚科(Phrynomerinae)树姬蛙为非洲专有。 节肢动物 非洲拥有大量且品种繁多的节肢动物(包括昆虫和其他分类的无脊椎动物)。它们之间有轴轮藻属(Charaxes)的蛱蝶和凤蝶属(papilio)的凤蝶、竹节虫和螳螂、蝗虫、食根蚁或矛蚁、蚁(热带蚁在广阔茂密丛林中游动)、白蚁和蜣螂。全洲蜘蛛极多。某些地区也会有很多蝎和飞蝗。大群飞蝗定期地横扫广阔地区,植被受到极大的破坏。其他严重的害虫有蚊子,是传播疾病的媒介,诸如疟疾,还有舌蝇传播造成非洲锥虫病的寄生虫,人类和家畜都会被传染上此种病。 水生动物 淡水鱼既有明显的原生形又有迅即进化的现代例证。属古代类型的有肺鱼(肺鱼属〔Protopterus〕)、多鳍鱼(多鳍鱼属〔Polypterus〕)以及芦鳗(Calamoichthys属),所有这些鱼都能呼吸空气,某些鮎(胡鮎科〔Clariidae〕)也有此特性,能在潮湿天气时横越陆地。新近进化的鱼约有200种出现在尼亚沙湖,其中4/5只在这里生长。 一种古代海鱼腔棘鱼,曾被认为已灭种6,000万馀年,但是1938年却在南非东海岸外发现仍有这种鱼,后来又在其他地方有所发现。在东、西海岸有丰富多样的无脊椎动物包括海洋微生物,是印度洋-太平洋和大西洋的典型生物。珊瑚礁和附著的微生物主要在非洲东海岸的暖流中发现,受寒冷的本吉拉和加那利洋流冲刷的西南和西海岸滨盛产鱼类

EN:


Varieties and quantities are well-known, large ungulates mammals (about more than 90 species) and freshwater fish (2,000 species) are more than other continents.


The main herbivorous fauna of mammals is the African gazelle, belonging to the 4 species of subfamily under Niu Ke (Bovidae).


The first subfamily is a cow-like Bovinae (cattle), which is subdivided into African buffalo and pronghorn, including the large Horn of the gazelle (the largest of all the Antelope), the pronghorn, the Leukoplakia and the South African antelope.


The second kind of subfamily is a small antelope, a primitive calf animal living in shrubs, bushes, and forests.


The third kind of subfamily is called "The Gazelle", further classified as Ma Jian horn Sable, Ma Ling and large antelope; The East African antelope, Moose antelope, horned gazelle, horns and South Africa's white wheat, are all living in the vast plains of animals, as well as the "swamp Antelope", the African Antelope, the short nasal antelope, the antelope, the curved tooth antelope and the little reed. The fourth subfamily is the orthodox antelope, which is divided into two clans.


The first clan comprises pygmy antelope, canine antelope, rock antelope, Jurassic, small rock antelope and black ear gazelle;


The second clan has antelope, Impala, antelope and gazelle, and other well-known African herbivorous animals have zebras, giraffes, hippos, rhinos and African elephants.




There may be no other animal groups to be more able to agree with Africa than predators, with about 60 other species. In addition to the famous Big cats (Roar cats) category, such as lions, leopards, cheetahs, there are wild dogs, hyenas, tau cats (a long-legged cat), Wildcat, Hu Wolf, Fox, weasels, Civet class and Mongoose. These predators and scavengers are crucial to maintaining the ecological balance in the areas they inhabit.




The primate includes 45 species of old continental monkeys and two world-wide apes: Chimpanzees and the world's largest ape gorilla. Former ape primates, such as bear monkeys (African lemurs) and infant monkeys (young or small lemurs of shrubs) and slow loris (slow Loris Branch (Lorisidae), crawling slowly and gently in the tree is mostly small and nocturnal, but there is no real monkey in Madagascar, but concentrated in the world's most diverse or large or small, or daytime or nocturnal former ape lemur. Marine mammals have a Mediterranean seal and a South African seal (open Puhai) and two species of manatee mammals (aquatic herbivores)-dugong and manatees.


In addition, whales, porpoises and dolphins often visit African waterfront waters. Africa is endemic to the large number of mammal species in South America. These mammals have giraffes and hippos. The small relatives of civet and hyenas are mostly African species. The rodents of the jumping hare are endemic to the local, nocturnal burrowing large soil dolphin (Tubulidentata), which is unique to Africa. Madagascar also has an unusual carnivorous section called Ma Daowei (with long beak animals, some of which have thorns and no tail). Birds in the south of the Sahara have nearly 1,500 species of resident, and another 275 species or for the Northwest non-resident or the ancient North (Palaearctic) winter migratory birds; migratory birds have reached 2 billion, but a sharp decline in the number due to severe drought and human use of land and predation. Birds are mainly in the old Continental section, but belonging to those endemic species, the most valuable is the ostrich, the Humpback stork, Hammerhead stork (a brown-Heron bird), Heron Eagle (a large long-legged carnivorous bird) and the Banana cuckoo (feather-colored body, some of the helmet-like Dorking fowl). Other sections such as Bustard, sandy chickens, honey northern flicker flashes and lark are widespread in Africa. There are many birds that prey on terrestrial mammals, including Eagles, eagles and Shan, such as storks, waterfowl and few kingfisher, and more insect eaters, which are usually beneficial to humans. The rotting animals have vultures and large vultures. Reptiles and two animals have little local varieties, the main varieties are related to the old continent. The most common lizard, Shi Longzi (characterized by overlapping scales), crocodiles and tortoises. Local reptiles have a tail-rope nail-like lizard. Within Africa, only Madagascar has a lizard of flying lizards and the python of hanging prey. There are various types of viper and many: some species have extremely poisonous venom, but are rare. Numerous snake-like snakes (with fangs in the posterior end of the palate) and cobra (with fixed fangs in front of the upper palate) also include a highly secreted venom of cobra varieties such as Mamba.


The two animals also belong mainly to the old Continental class. The Salamanders and Caerulein section (Hylidae, the tree Toad Branch; the upper palate has teeth) is confined to the northwest of the north. A large number of more ordinary frogs and toads include bizarre Cameroonian hairy frogs, whose hairs are auxiliary breathing organs. The Frog subfamily (Phrynomerinae) tree Ji Wa is exclusive to Africa. Arthropod Africa has a large variety of arthropod (including insects and other classified invertebrates). Among them, the butterfly, Slub and Mantis, locusts, ant or spear ants, ant (Tropical ants swim in the vast dense jungle), termites and dung beetles are the butterflies and butterflies of the genus Charaxes. All continents are very many spiders. Some areas also have many scorpion and migratory locusts. Large swarms of migratory locusts regularly sweep across the wide area, and vegetation is severely damaged. Other serious pests have mosquitoes, which are vectors of spreading disease, such as malaria, and the spread of tsetse flies that cause African trypanosomiasis parasites, and humans and livestock will be infected with this disease. Freshwater fishes of aquatic animals have both obvious primitive form and modern illustration of rapidly evolving. Genus of ancient types of pulmonary fish (Protopterus), many fins (multi-fin fish genus (Polypterus)) and reed Eels (Calamoichthys genus), all of these fish can breathe air, and some Shan (HU Shan Branch (Clariidae)) also have this characteristic, which can traverse land in damp weather. About 200 species of newly evolved fish appear in the Nile Lake, where 4/5 of them grow. An ancient fish-cavity spike, which had been considered extinct for 60 million years, was found in the east coast of South Africa 1938, and later found elsewhere. In the East and west coasts, a variety of invertebrates, including marine microorganisms, are typical creatures in the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. Coral reefs and the accompanying microbes are found mainly in the warm currents of the east coast of Africa, which are rich in fish from the southwest and west coasts that are washed by the cold Benguilla and the Canaries.

« 上一篇 下一篇 »

发表评论:

◎欢迎参与讨论,请在这里发表您的看法、交流您的观点。